Monday, March 16, 2020

Street pharm essay(why you should buy this book) Essay Example

Street pharm essay(why you should buy this book) Essay Example Street pharm essay(why you should buy this book) Paper Street pharm essay(why you should buy this book) Paper and she threw on her coat and aint worked there a day of my life- but the manager owed me. He was one of my customers. Time to get down to brothers real bread-and-butter! I took out my cell and speed-dialed sonny. Ty! What the fucks going on? Whyd you turn off your cell? Mind your business. Whats going on? l need your help son. Tonight we got us some deliveries. Already got some. Well, I got more for you. Go on. I wrote the stuff on my palm pilot. Hold up, I said, whos this Schultz guy? A new customer I met last week. Told him we was getting a shipment with the hottest shit this side of the bogota. He gonna drop 5 gs.

Friday, February 28, 2020

Organization Behavior Reflection Paper Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Organization Behavior Reflection Paper - Essay Example One of conditions of successful choice of profession is presence of a complex of psycho-physiological and the personal qualities necessary for successful work. As leading characteristics of a person’s readiness to the certain professional work should be considered not only theoretical knowledge, the mental abilities, and special skills, but also own outlook, personal characteristics, valuable orientations, motivations, physical development, and particularities of behavior. On coming to some company or organization a worker has his own purposes, needs, values, norms, style of behavior and certain demands to the employer (conditions of work, salary, etc). A company in turn has own purposes and goals, and makes certain demands to an employee’s education, qualifications, productivity, discipline, etc. It expects the worker will fulfill all rules, social norms, and respect and follow the developed traditions of the organization. Except for a professional role a worker of any company carries out some social roles (becomes the colleague, subordinates, or the head, a member of the trade-union organization). Here we deal with the process of adaptation of own personal style, values, and preferences with job preferences, skills, and ability to work with others Process of adaptation will be the more successful, the more values and norms of behavior of the company will become simultaneously values and norms of behavior of a worker. As for me I consider myself as a person who should be occupied with some job connected with communication with people. I am really communicative and open person. I can easily come to an understanding with different people. Moreover to my opinion one of the most necessary features of character that a person working with people should process is a capability to keep out of conflict situations. All my friend and relatives admit that I am very sociable person. I am sure that sociability on one

Wednesday, February 12, 2020

Mandarin Oriental Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 4000 words

Mandarin Oriental - Essay Example The company begun when it is opened its flagship property in Hong Kong in 1963. The property was known as The Mandarin and developed into a luxurious and reputable hotel. The Mandarin International hotels were formed in 1974. The group intended to spread to the entire Asia (Kotler & Bowen 2006). The strategy was to maintain or expand the standards that had been set by the pioneer branch at Hong Kong (Smith 2010). The company expanded further and acquired property in Bangkok. The Oriental property, which was already a legendary property, was acquired from Bangkok. The management had to facilitate the merger of two strong brands to come up with Mandarin Oriental in the year 1985. From 1990, the company expanded globally and now operation in many countries (Kotler & Bowen 2006). When MOHG was launched the company publicly in Hong Kong stock exchange, there was a need for the company come up with a symbol that represented the image of the company’s elegance (Smith 2010). The elega nce of the symbol would become crucial in representing the image and the charm of the group (Hiebing &Cooper 2004). The company came up with a logo through a recognized design house called Pentagram (Thompson & Martin 2005). The logo took the design of a fan. It is one of the most recognized logos in the world when it comes to the tourism industry (Thompson & Martin 2005). The company encourages all the Mandarin Oriental hotels to come up with their own unique fans to reflect their own individuality (Dobson & Starkey 1993). Each hotel is adjusted to the environment it is located and represents the goals of the company in the local environment. The company places value in originality and is keen to ensure that each branch established a connection with its local market (Smith 2010). Mission and vision The company has a vision of attaining acknowledgement as the world’s most excellent lodge grouping. It has an intention of satisfying and delight their customers (Kotler & Bowen 2 006). According to Ettdgui, the company aims at escalating the operational accommodation to 10,001. The company is committed to making difference continually (Kotler & Bowen 2006). The company aims at improving to maintain its market share and revenues. According to Mandarin Oriental Hotel Group (2009), the company is committed to making a difference through employee development programs. The mission demonstrates the uniqueness of the company in terms of its approach to the target market and to remain competitive. Objectives and the Future of MOHGs The company is targeting to understand the guest’s needs by paying attention to their requests and responding with accuracy and precision (Smith 2010). MOHG hopes to be able to deliver products and services that meet the customer expectations (Thompson & Martin 2005). The company is emphasizing on accountability and sharing of responsibility in order to achieve its goals in an atmosphere of teamwork (Dobson & Starkey 1993). The fut ure of the company as indicated its goals is to remain a market leader through training and career development (Hiebing &Cooper 2004). The company has an interest in surpassing the customer expectation through creating an experience (Dobson & Starkey 1993). The company has singled out creativity and innovation as prerequisites to remaining at the helm of the hotel and tourism industry in the world (Thompson & Marti

Friday, January 31, 2020

BHS 400 STRESS MANAGEMENT (Module 5 CBT) Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

BHS 400 STRESS MANAGEMENT (Module 5 CBT) - Essay Example The web address is http://www.webmd.com/balance/stress-management/stress-management-topic-overview. The article has been reviewed by specialists in the field. The article was last updated in April, 2007. The page provides accurate information with limited advertising. References list has been provided. The article is updated regularly and all the links are functioning properly. The page can be viewed without any restrictions and conditions. Based on these aspects, I recommended this site to my friend. Following is some useful information I gathered from the webpage. Stress has some adverse effects on health. These effects have been elaborated in the webpage. Symptoms of stress include increased heart rate, increased breathing, headache, stiff neck, tight shoulders, back pain, increased sweating, nausea and diarrhea. Prolonged stress can affect various organs in the body. It suppresses the immune system and triggers infections. Stress has been linked to high blood pressure, arrhythmias, atherosclerosis, coronary artery disease, heart attack and heart failure. It can worsen symptoms in gastro-esophageal reflux, peptic ulcer disease, irritable bowel syndrome, ulcerative colitis, rheumatoid arthritis, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, acne and psoriasis. Stress is also linked to erectile dysfunction, low fertility, pregnancy-related problems and painful menstruation (Curtis, 2009). There are mainly 3 types of stress coping strategies. These are cognitive or reframing strategies, action-based strategies and emotion- based strategies. The cognitive strategies which help an individual cope stress are re-framing the situation are laughing it out and deliberate positive reinterpretation. Action-based strategies recommend involvement of problem-solving skills and solution of the problem by systematic approach. Emotion-based strategies are the most commonly recommended strategies to deal with stress. These strategies

Thursday, January 23, 2020

Imperialism and Colonialism Essay -- Imperialism produces colonialism

Imperialism has been noted to be practice of foreign rule in a context of hierarchy and subordination, which can eventually lead to the formation of an empire. Imperialism refers directly to the enhancement of power and military superiority. At the time when developed nations were colonizing less developed nations around the 1870s, the age of Imperialism began. Referring to the time were nations such as the United States, Germany, and Japan began to employ imperialist doctrines to their governance, yet imperialist tendencies had been around for centuries. Even before imperialism there was mercantilism, and colonialism, which consisted of an extension of a nation's sovereignty over territory and people outside its own boundaries, to facilitate economic domination over their resources, labor, and markets. As well, the arrival of traders, settlers, and the establishment of governing systems, which reinforced the â€Å"peripheral† status of colonies. (power point source). There are also different phases of imperialism, there is high imperialism, which corresponds to the industrial revolution, and the second phase includes the use of new industrial power, creating high level of rivalry between high industrial powers. Imperial powers would ally themselves and aim their efforts in securing the territory, creating a new form of power, Imperialism being an imposition. Asia produces the majority of all the goods in the world, to go from an agrarian economy to an industrial economy through a surplus, that can later be used for industrial investments Triangular trade Patterns of imperial territorial acquisition A brief non-Eurocentric history: China, the Indian Ocean and the Arabian Peninsula. Imperialism is part of the essential nature ... ...tp://www.econlib.org/library/Enc/Mercantilism.html>. Cannan, Edwin. "Smith: Wealth of Nations." Library of Economics and Liberty. Google. Web. 27 Mar. 2015. . "Mercantilism." WNEC FACULTY/STAFF HOME PAGES. Web. 27 Mar. 2015. . Koebner, Richard. "Imperialism: The Story and Significance." Google Books. Google. Web. 02 Apr. 2015. Emerson, Rupert. "Journal of Contemporary History." Http://iiiprxy.library.miami.edu:2086/stable/259788?seq=2. Web. 03 Apr. 2015. Patrick, O'Brien. Mercantilism and Imperialism in the Rise and Decline of the Dutch and British Economies 1585-1815. 4th ed. Vol. 148. Web. 27 Mar. 2015. .

Wednesday, January 15, 2020

Intro to Public Relations Notes

The Challenge of Public RelationsPR is multifaceted ?A public relations professional must have skills in ?Written and interpersonal communication ?Research ?Negotiation ?Creativity ?Logistics ?Facilitation ?Problem solving Global ScopeThe public relations industry is growing in many nations ?Almost $8 billion spent each year in the US ?Expected growth of 23% in Asian revenue in the next five years ?Annual spending of $2. 2 billion in China A Variety of DefinitionsA number of definitions have been formulated over the years Cutlip, Center, and Broom, Effective Public Relations ?Public relations is the management function that identifies, establishes and maintains mutually beneficial relationships between an organization and the various publics on whom its success or failure depends. ?Glen Cameron, University of Missouri ?Public relations is the â€Å"strategic management of competition and conflict for the benefit of one's own organization-and when possible-also for the mutual benefit of the organization and its various stakeholders or publics. † ?Public Relations Society of America (2012) Public relations is a strategic communication process that builds mutually beneficial relationships between organizations and their publics ?Kevin Trowbridge (2012) ?Public relations is the communication management function through which organizations build and maintain mutually beneficial relationships with the public on whom the organization's success or failure depends.Public Relations – Key Terms†¢Communication†¢Management†¢Build and Maintain†¢Mutually Beneficial†¢Relationships†¢Organization†¢Publics RPIE†¢Research†¢Planning†¢Implementation†¢EvaluationDifferences between Journalism and PR Journalists|PR Professionals| Use only two components (writing and media relations)|†¢ Use many components| †¢ Are objective observers|†¢ Are advocates| †¢ Focus on a mass audience|†¢ Focus on def ined publics| †¢ Use only one channel|†¢ Use a variety of channelsDifferences between Advertising and PR Advertising|Public Relations| †¢ Works through mass media|†¢ Relies on a variety of communication tools| †¢ Addresses external audiences|†¢ Targets specialized audiences| †¢ Is a communications function|†¢ Is broader in scope| †¢ Is a communication tool in PR|†¢ Fills a support role| †¢ Sells goods and services|†¢ Creates a favorable environment for an organization's survival|How PR Supports Marketing†¢Eight ways public relations supports marketing ?Develops new prospects ?Provides third party endorsements ?Generates sales leads ?Paves the way for sales calls ?Stretches dollars ?Provides inexpensive literature ?Establishes credibility ?Helps sell minor products Differences between Marketing and PR Marketing|Public Relations|†¢ Is concerned with customers and selling products or services|†¢ Is concerned wit h building relationships and generating goodwill|†¢ Deals with target market, consumers, and customers|†¢ Deals with publics, audiences, and stakeholders|Toward an Integrated Perspective: Strategic Communication†¢Concept of integration: ?To use a variety of strategies and tactics to convey a consistent message in a variety of forms†¢Global/Multicultural†¢Research based†¢Relationship focused†¢internet/new media oriented†¢Toolbox-driven tacticsA Changing Focus in Public Relations†¢The evolution of the role of PR beyond publicity and media relations†¢Growth for PR professionals in health care, consumer goods, financial services, and technology†¢Crisis management in the larger context of strategic management of conflict Personal Qualifications and Attitudes Six Essential Abilities ?Writing skills ?Research ability ?Planning expertise ?Problem-solving ability ?Business/economics competence ?Expertise in social media 5 Emerging Trends in PR†¢Storytelling (and â€Å"story selling†)†¢Quantification†¢Visual Communications†¢Proactive and Predictive Monitoring†¢Adaptation 10 sills PR Pros will need in 2020†¢Advertising Copywriting†¢Video Editing/Production†¢Mobile†¢Social Content Creation/Curation†¢Analytics†¢Search Engine Optimization†¢Speed to Information†¢Programming Skills†¢Managing Virtual Teams†¢Blogger OutreachWhat Employers Want: 10 Qualities Good writing†¢IntelligenceCultural literacy†¢The ability to recognize a good story when you see one†¢Media savvy†¢Contacts†¢Good business sense†¢Broad communications experience†¢Specialized experience†¢Fresh perspective Organizational Roles†¢Communication technician roles ?Taking photographs ?Writing brochures ?Preparing news releases ?Organizing events†¢Communication manager roles ?Making communication policy decisions ?Overseeing multiple communication strategies ?Supervising employees responsible for tactics The Value of Internships†¢Win-win situation for both the student and the organization Many major PR firms have formal internship programs ?Edelman Worldwide (Edel-U) ?Weber Shandwick (Weber University) ?Hill and knowlton ?Ketchum Salaries in Public Relations†¢The national median salary for experienced professionals ?Approximately $85,000 for practitioners with 7 to 10 years of experience ?Over $150,000 for practitioners with more than 20 years of experience†¢In general, women working in the PR field earn less than men ?Factors that could lead to gender discrepancies ?The number of years in the field ?Technician duties versus managerial responsibilities ?The nature of the industry The size of the organization ?Women's attempts to balance work and familyThe Value of Public Relations†¢A service to society†¢Informative†¢Relevant†¢Earned influence through managing competition and co nflictA Brief History of Public Relations†¢In the beginning†¦ ?Moses and Aaron ?800 years later – Aristotle (â€Å"Father of Rhetoric†) ?300 years later – Jesus Christ ?†No one in history, before or since, could match his skill as a storyteller, a critical skill for public relations practitioners. † ?Then – the Apostle Paul†¢Ancient beginnings ?The Rosetta Stone ?Julius Caesar ?The Church Public relations in colonial America ?Promoting settlement ?Struggle for independence ?Boston Tea Party, Thomas Paine, Federalist Papers†¢The age of the press agent ?The age of hype ?Davy Crockett, Buffalo Bill, Annie Oakley ?Press agent tactics ?The master of pseudoevent: P. T. Barnum ?Tom Thumb, Jenny Lind†¢Public relations grows as America grows ?Settling the American West ?Railroad promotion techniques†¢The rise of politics and activism ?Political beginnings ?Amos Kendall ?Activists ?Abolitionists ?Prohibitionists ?Women's ri ghts advocates ?Environmentalists†¢Modern public relations comes of age ?Henry Ford Positioning and accessibility ?Ivy Lee ?First public relations counselor ?Rockefeller ?Colorado Fuel and Iron Company labor strike ?George Creel ?WWI ?Edward Bernays ?Father of modern PR†¢Public relations expands in postwar America ?Rapid growth in all areas of public relations along with the development of mass media ?able to capture and seize information and give it to the media/people†¢Evolving practice and philosophy ?1800s to 1920s from press agentry to public information to scientific persuasion ?centered around the wars: How effective is propaganda? How do we pursued people that what we're doing is good? 1950s and '60s – Relationship building ?Necessitated by activism ?What was happening was about people, giving people equality, seeing people as unique and equal beings ?1970s and '80s – Managerial approach ?Investor relations and MBO (Management by Objective) ?MBO = Managerial approach PR adapted to ?1990s and '00s – Relationship management ?relationship building as well as relationship maintaining Four Models of Public Relations†¢Gruing and Hunt: ?Press agentry/publicity ?age of hype associated with P. T. Barnum ?Public information ?Ivy Lee, Edward Bernays comes in at the end of public information ?Two-way asymmetric listen to the people and tailor around their wants and needs ?Two-way symmetric ?the â€Å"ideal† mode of practice ?goal is to identify policies and actions that are mutually beneficial to both parties ?collaborative ?openness for the organization to change itself based on the consumerTrends in Today's Practice of Public Relations†¢Feminization of the field ?70% of PR practitioners are women ?Women earn less money than men ?Recent research ?PR was one of the first fields that allowed women to display their abilities†¢The importance of diversity ?Minorities constitute 36% of US citizens ?Hispanics are the fastest growing group Minority practitioners lag behind population trends ?Professional groups seek to encourage minority practitioners ?†Who do people trust? They trust people most like themselves. † ?Religious, gender, race, etc.†¢Other major trends in public relations ?Transparency ?Didn't become a trend until two-way asymmetric/symmetric ?An ever-broadening social medial toolbox ?Increased emphasis on evaluation ?Showing ROI (return on investment); showing that what we do has results ?Managing the 24/7 news cycle ?New directions in mass media ?Outsourcing to public relations firms ?The importance of lifelong learning looking for opportunities to develop yourself professionally; learning doesn't stop when school does A Growing Professional Practice†¢The Public Relations Society of America ?The largest national public relations organization in the world ?The Public Relations Student Society of America (PRSSA)†¢The International Association Business Communications ?The second-largest organization of communication and public relations professionals†¢The International Public Relations Association ?A London-based global organization Professionalism, Licensing, and Accreditation†¢Professionalism ?Professional practitioners should have: A sense of independence ?A sense of responsibility to society and public interests ?Concern for the competence and honor of the profession ?A higher loyalty to the profession than to an employer ?Careerist versus professional values ?Technician mentality†¢Licensing ?Advocates ?Defines PR, unifies curricula, unifies standards, protects clients, protects practitioners, raises practitioners' credibility ?Opponents ?Violates 1st amendment, malpractice laws exist, states license but PR works nationally/internationally, ensures only minimum competence/ethics, increased credibility not ensured, expensive Accreditation ?†Certification† by professional organizations ?PRSA and IABC o ffer accreditation Public Relations Departments†¢Importance of PR in today's organizations ?PR pros seen as strategic communication managers ?PR offers 184% ROI ?CEOs want communication that is strategic, research-based, and two-way†¢Organizational factors determined the role of public relations ?Large vs. small firms ?Management perceptions ?C-suite attitudes/reporting issues ?Capabilities of the public relations executive†¢How public relations departments are organized ?Leader titles ?Reporting hierarchy Size of departments†¢Common divisions found in large corporations ?Media relations, investor relations, consumer affairs, government relations, community relations, marketing communications, and employee communications Line and Staff Functions†¢Line manager ?Delegates, sets goals, hires, influences others' work†¢Staff function ?Little direct authority ?Indirectly influence others' work through suggestions, recommendations, advice ?PR is a staff functi on†¢Access to management ?PR influence is linked to access to top management ?Recommendations to management help in formulating policyLevels of Influence†¢Advisory: Management has no obligation to request or act on recommendations ?Purely advisory practitioners are often ineffective †¢Compulsory-advisory: Management is required to listen to public relations' perspective before acting †¢Concurring authority: PR and others must agree on an action Sources of Friction †¢Legal ?Differences on public statements †¢Human Resources ?Differences regarding employee communications †¢Advertising ?Competing for resources ?Philosophical differences †¢Marketing ?Focuses on one public: current or prospective customers The Trend toward Outsourcing Almost 90% of Fortune 500 companies use outside PR counsel in varying degrees ?The need for additional â€Å"arms and legs† ?To obtain a unique perspective and market insight Global Reach †¢Firms and their offices or affiliates are situated in most of the world's major cities and capitals †¢Substantial revenues from international operations Public Relations Firms †¢Firms have regional, national, and global reach †¢PR Firms can complement in-house expertise ?PR Firms offer diverse services †¢Rapid growth of PR firms †¢Emphasis on the counseling aspect †¢The rise of communication conglomerates Many firms are owned by communication conglomerates and thereby can offer integrated services (i. e. , PR and advertising expertise) through affiliates ?The reason for acquisition of PR firms ?Natural evolutionary step of integration ?Economic interest †¢Structure of a counseling firm ?Depends on size of firm ?Small firm may only have owner and one or two associates ?Large firms have an extended hierarchy Pros and Cons of Using a Public Relations Firm Advantages |Disadvantages| †¢ Objectivity| †¢ Part-time commitment| †¢ Skills and expertise| †¢ Need for long briefing| †¢ Extensive resources| †¢ Internal resentment| Offices throughout the country| †¢ Need for direction| †¢ Problem-solving skills| †¢ Need for information and confidence| †¢ Credibility| †¢ High costs| Fees and Charges †¢Basic hourly fee, plus out-of-pocket expenses ?Most widely used among large firms †¢Retainer fee †¢Fixed project fee †¢Pay for placement ?Seldom used Class Notes 1/28/2013 ?Ivy Lee and Edward Bernays are essential to Public Relations ?Bernays = father of modern public relations ?Public Relations Anagrams ?Crap Built On Lies ?Spout Brilliance ?Social Blueprint understand the bigger picture, map out a strategy, give instructions to people involved ?shift came with industrialization ?Ivy Lee – first pr counselor; first to say it's not just publicity ?declaration of principles (pg 49 in book) ?Advancing the concept that business and industry†¦ ?Dealing with top executives and carrying out†¦ ?Maintaining open communication with the news media ?Emphasizing the necessity of humanizing business†¦ Class Notes 2/4/2013†¢ Four essential steps of Public Relations†¢ Research situation – organization – publics†¢ What is Research? –What do you think of when you think of research?†¢ Science†¢ Studies†¢ Statistics†¢ So much!†¢ Searchable BackgroundChapter 5-6 Overview ?The four essential steps of effective public relations ?Research: The first step ?Research methods ?Planning: The second step Research: The first step ?Situation ?Organization ?Publics ?What is research? ?A form of listening ?Asking questions and looking for answers ?Essential to any public relations activity or campaign Questions to ask before research design ?What's the problem (or opportunity? ) ?organization ?situation ?publics ?Kind of information needed? ?How will results be used? ?Public (or publics)? ?Who should do it? ?How will data be analyzed/reported/applied? ?Timetable? ?Budget? Using Research ? Ways to research ?Achieve credibility with management ?Executives want facts, not guesses and hunches. ?Define/segment publics ?Gathering detailed information about demographics, lifestyles, characteristics, and consumption patterns helps to ensure that messages reach the proper audiences ?Formulate strategy Test messages ?Research can determine which message is most salient to a target audience ?Prevent crises ?An estimated 90% of organizational crises are caused by internal operational problems rather than by unexpected natural disasters or external issues ?Professionals can prevent a conflict or crisis through environmental scanning and other research tactics ?Monitor competition ? Organizations keep track of what the competition is doing ?Research on the competition can be done with surveys, content analysis of the competition's media coverage, and reviews of industry reports in trade journals Generate publicity ?Polls and surveys can generate publicity for an organization ?Measure Success ?The bottom line of any public relations program is whether the time and money spend accomplished the state objective Research Methods ?Types of Research ?Informal research ?Unplanned/spontaneous, Uncontrolled, Unsystematic ?Formal Research ?Planned, controlled, systematic ?Secondary research ?existing information ?Primary research ?New/original information ?Methodological Approaches ?Historical/Critical ?Rhetorical/textual/content analysis ? Qualitative Exploratory, rich data, often not generalizable ?Focus groups, in-depth interviews, observations ?Quantitative ?Descriptive/explanatory, often generalizable ?Mail surveys, telephone polls Qualitative vs. Quantitative Qualitative Research|Quantitative Research| â€Å"Soft† data|†Hard† data| Usually uses open-ended questions, unstructured|Usually uses closed-ended questions, requires forced choices, highly structured| Exploratory in nature; probing, â€Å"fishing expedition† type of research|Descriptive or explanatory type of research| Usually valid, but not reliable|Usually valid and reliable| Rarely projectable to larger audiences|Usually projectable to larger audiences| Typically uses nonrandom samples|Typically uses random samples| Examples: Focus groups; one-on-one, in-depth interviews; observation; participation; role-playing studies; convenience polling|Examples: Telephone polls; mail surveys, mail-intercept studies; face-to-face interviews; shared cost, or omnibus, studies; panel studies| Research Techniques ?Organizational materials ?read every piece of information on an organization's website ?Library and online databases Journal of Public Relations Research ?Internet ? Any number of corporations, nonprofit organizations, trade groups, special-interest groups, foundations, universities, think tanks, and government agencies post reams of data in the Internet. ?Content analysis ?The systematic and objective counting or categorizing of content ?In public relations, content often is selected from media coverage of a topic or organization ?Interviews ?Personnel faced with solving a particular problem often â€Å"interview† other public relations professionals for ideas and suggestions ?Focus groups This technique is widely used in advertising, marketing, and public relations to help identify the attitudes and motivations of important publics ?Copy testing ?A draft of a material/message tested on a group of people before it is sent out to the public; can happen within a focus group ? Scientific sampling methods Random Sampling ?Probability Sampling ?Everyone in the target audience has an equal chance of being selected ?Nonprobability sample is not random ?Most precise random sample is selected from list naming everyone in the target audience Sample Size Usually a sample of 250 to 500 people will provide data with a 5 to 6 percent margin of error ?A sample of 100 people will provide about a 10 percent margin ?responses could go 10% either way Reaching Respondents ? Mail questionnaires ?Telephone surveys ?Personal interviews ?Piggyback surveys ?Web and e-mail surveys Research: Let's Practice ?What's the problem (or opportunity)? ?Kind of information needed? ?How will results be used? ?Public (or publics)? ?Who should do it? ?How will data be analyzed/reported/applied? ?Timetable? ?Budget? *Articulate the benefit, value, or need for public relations – possible quiz/test question Planning: The Second Step ?Planning must be strategic and systematic ?Planning involves the coordination of multiple methodsElements of a Public Relations Plan1. Situation Analysis ?Public relations professionals cannot set valid objectives without a clear understanding of the situation that led to the conclusion that there was a need for a public relations program 2. Goals 3. Key Publics (or Target Audiences) ?Public relations programs should be directed toward specific and defined audiences or publics 4. Objectives ?Once the situation or problem is understood, the next step is to establish objectives for the program. 5. Strategies ?A strategy statement describes how, in concept, a campaign will achieve objectives; it provides guidelines and themes for the overall program 6. Tactics ?Tactics describe, in sequence, the specific activities that put strategies into operation and achieve the stated objectives 7. Materials 8. Activities Calendar/Timeline/Responsibilities (WBS) ?The three aspects of timing in a program plan are deciding when a campaign should be conducted, determining the proper sequence of activities, and compiling a list of steps that must be completed to produce a finished product 9. Evaluation/Measurement The evaluation element of a plan relates directly back to the state objectives of the program. objectives must be measurable in some ways to show clients and employers that the program accomplished its purpose 10. Budget ? Both clients and employers inevitably ask, â€Å"How much will this program cost? † Holy GOST of Public Relations Planning ?Goals – Where you want to go ?Objectives – How you know when you get there ?Desired Result: Awareness, Acceptance or Action ?Key Public ?Measure/Level of Accomplishment ?Timeframe/Deadline ?Strategies – How are you going to get there ?Tactics – What you'll need to get there The GOST must be aligned! Planning: Let's Practice ?Goals ?Objectives ?Strategies ?Creative ?e. g. , themes, messages Implementation: The Third Step ?Implementation ?May be called â€Å"communication† ?Or may be referred to as â€Å"execution† ?Is the process and the means by which objectives are achieved (i. e. , strategy is implemented) ?Tactics are developed to implement the plan ?Logistics are managed Public relations is the communication management function through which organizations build and maintain mutually beneficial rel ationships with the publics on whom the organization's success or failure depends. Communication: the systemic process of creating meaning Goals of Strategic Communication ?Awareness ?Message exposure ?Public relations personnel provide materials to the mass media and disseminate other messages through controlled media such as a newsletters and brochures ?Accurate dissemination ?The basic information, often filtered by media gatekeepers, remains intact as it is transmitted through various media ?Acceptance ?Attitude change ?the audience not only believes the message but also makes a verbal or mental commitment to change behavior as a result of the message ? Action ?Behavior change Members of the audience actually change their current behavior or purchase the product and use it Making Sure the Audience Receives the Message ?Schramm's model ?Source > Encoder > Signal < Decoder < Destination ?Expanded reflects two-way communication ?Grunig's model of symmetrical communication ?Understanding is the principle objective of public relations rather than persuasion Making Sure the Audience Pays Attention to the Message ?Theoretical perspectives ?Lasswell's definition of communication ?†Who says what, ?in which channel, ?to whom, ?with what effect? † ? Media uses and gratification ?Passive audiences Active audiences Making Sure the Audience Understands the Message ?Importance of language ?Understand cultural differences ?Check writing for simplicity and clarity ?Readability formulas: Flesch, Cloze ?Use symbols, acronyms, easy-to-remember slogans ?Avoid jargon, cliche, hype, euphemisms, discriminatory language Making the Message Credible ?Source credibility ?The problem of source credibility is the main reason that organizations, whenever possible, use respected outside experts or celebrities as representatives to convey their messages ? Context of the message ?Action (performance) speaks louder than a stack of news releases Involvement ?Involvement is interest in or concern about an issue or a product Making the Message Memorable ?Repetition ?Necessary because all members of a target audience don't see or hear the message at the same time ?Reminds the audience, so there is less chance of failure to remember the message ?Remember the message ?Can lead to Improved Learning and increase the chance of penetrating audience indifference or resistance ?Offsets the noise surrounding the message ?Contributes to credibility ? Delivering information in a variety of ways via multiple communication channels Communication Channels ?Face to Face Mediated ?Owned Media ?Paid Media ?Earned Media ?Shared Media Making Sure the Audience Acts on the Message ?Everett Rogers' Diffusion of Innovations ?A process by which any innovation is diffused through certain channels and then adopted over time among members of a social system Innovation: Anything New (e. g. , Idea, Method, Product, Service, etc. ) ?Relative Advantage ?The degree to which an innovation is perceived as better than the idea it replaces ?Compatibility ?The degree to which an innovation is perceived as being consistent with the existing values, experiences, and needs of potential adopters Complexity ?Degree to which an innovation is perceived as being easy to adopt ?Trialability ? The degree to which an innovation may be experienced on a limited basis ?Observability ?The degree to which the results of an innovation are visible to others Stages of the Adoption Process ?Awareness ?A person becomes aware of an idea or a new product, often by means of an advertisement or a news story ?Interest ?The individual seeks more information about the idea or the product, perhaps by ordering a brochure, picking up a pamphlet, or reading an in-depth article in a newspaper or magazine ?Evaluation The potential consumer evaluates the idea or the product on the basis of how it meets specific needs and wants. Feedback from friends and family is part of this process ?Trial ?The person tries the product or the idea on an experimental basis, by using a sample, witnessing a demonstration, or making qualifying statements such as â€Å"I read†¦Ã¢â‚¬  ?Adoption ?The individual begins to use the product on a regular basis or integrates the idea into his or her belief system. â₠¬Å"I read†¦Ã¢â‚¬  becomes â€Å"I think†¦Ã¢â‚¬  Evaluation: The Fourth Step ?Evaluation is the measurement of results against agreed-upon objectives established during planning Evaluation improves the public relations process Three Kinds of Evaluation ?Ongoing ?Summative ?Formative (Research? ) Basic Evaluation Questions ?Adequately planned? ?Message(s) understood? ?How could strategy have been more effective? ?Audiences reached? ?Objectives achieved? ?What was unforeseen? ?Budget met? ?Future improvements? Objectives: Prerequisites for Measurement ?Develop a clearly established set of measurable objectives ?Outcome ?Awareness ?Acceptance ?Action ?Output Measurement and Evaluation Status ?3 Levels of Measurement ?Basic ?Measuring ?Targeted Audiences Impressions ? Media Placements ?Intermediate ?Retention ?Comprehension ?Awareness ?Reception ?Advanced ?Behavior Change ?Attitude Change ?Opinion Change Measurement of Message Exposure ?Compile clippings/mentions ?Most widely used metric ?Media Impressions ?Placement x circulation/viewership/listenership ?Internet hits ?Advertising equivalency ?Space/time x advertising rate ?Systematic tracking ?Analyze volume and content of media placements ?Information requests ?Cost per person ?Audience attendance Measurement of Audience Awareness, Attitudes, and Action ?Audience awareness ?survey day-after recall ?Audience attitude ?related to awareness ?baseline/benchmark studies ?Audience action ?the ultimate objective of any public relations effort ?measure desired behaviors Chapter 7 – Public Opinion and Persuasion Overview ?What is public opinion? ?Opinion leaders as catalysts ?The role of mass media ?The role of conflict ?Persuasion in public opinion ?Factors in persuasive communication ?The limits of persuasion What is public opinion? ?Three aspects about public opinion formation ?Society is passive Psychologists have found that the public by and large tends to be passive ?Society is segmented ?One issue may engage the attention of a part of the population with a particular vested interest, whereas another issue arouses the interest of another segment ?Society is divided ? People have some opinions that may conflict or compete with others' opinions about the same issue. People also sometimes hold contradictory opinions or attitudes ?Public Opinion is powerful ?Activate public through public opinion ?Identify key publics through analysis of public opinion What do you think? What is the role of opinion leaders in the formation of public opinion? Opinion Leaders as Catalysts ?Opinion leaders can be formal or informal ?Interested in a particular issue ?Knowledgeable on a given topic ?They help frame and define issues that often have their roots in individuals' self-interests ?It is through the influence of opinion leaders that public opinion often crystallizes into a measurable entity ?The flow of opinion ? Multiple-Step Flow ?Opinion makers derive large amounts of information from the mass media and other sources and share that information with people The attentive public is interested in the issue but rely on opinion leaders to synthesize and interpret information ?The inattentive public are unaware of or uninterested in the issue and remain outside the opinion-formation process ?N-Step Theory ?N-step theory states that individuals are seldom influenced by only one opinion leader but actually interact with different leaders ?Diffusion Theory ?Individuals adopt new ideas or products in five stages: awareness, interest, trial, evaluation, and adoption. Individuals are influenced by media in the first two steps and by friends and family members in the third and fourth steps. Each individual is a decision maker who adopts a new idea or product when they reach the final step The Role of Mass Media ?Agenda setting ?media tell the public what to think about, albeit not necessarily what to think ?Framing ?media and PR both have role in how issues are â€Å"framed,† which parts are emphasized The role of Conflict ?Conflict inherent in news frames ?Use of media for strategic agenda-building Persuasion in Public Opinion ?Persuasion is used to†¦ ?change or neutralize hostile opinions ?crystalize latent opinions and positive attitudes ?maintain favorable opinions Persuasion and Negotiation Persuasion is comparable to negotiation ?Public relations can be used as a tool leading to the alternative dispute resolution (ADR) process Factors in Persuasive Communication ?Audience Analysis ? Knowledge of audience characteristics such as beliefs, attitudes, values, concerns, and lifestyles is an essential part of persuasion. It helps communicators tailor messages that are salient, answer a perceived need, and provide a logical course of action. ?Appeals to Self-Interest ?People become involved in issues or pay attention to messages that appeal to their psychological, economic, or situational needs. Audience Participation ?Attitude or beliefs are changed or enhanced by audience involvement and participation. ?Suggestions for Action ?A key principle of persuasion is that people endorse ideas and take actions only if they are accompanied by a proposed action from the sponsor. ?Source Credibility ? A message is more believable to an intended audience if the source has credibility with that audience. ?Clarity of Message ?Many messages fail because the audience finds them unnecessarily complex in content or language ?Content and Structure of Messages ?Channels Different media with different features can be used for diverse public relations purposes. ?Timing and Contexts ?A message tends to be more persuasive if environmental factors support the message or if the message is received within the context of other messages and situations with which the individual is familiar ?Reinforcement ?People tend to ignore or react negatively to messages that conflict with their value or belief systems Appeals to Self-interest ?Appeal to psychological, economic, or situational needs ?Maslow's hierarchy of needs Audience Participation ?Workers involving in the problem solving Distribution of samples ?The act of participation encouraged by activist groups Suggestions for Action ? Recommendations for action must be clear to follow Source Credibility ?Expertise ?Sincerity ?Charisma Clarity of Message ?Public relations practitioners should ask two questions ?Will the audience understand the message? ?What do I want the audience to do with the message? Content and structure of messages ?Drama and stories ?Surveys and polls ?Statistics ?Examples ?Endorsements ?Causes and rationales ?Emotional appeals Channels ?Different media can be used for diverse public relations purposes television ?newspaper ?radio ?social networking sites ?face-to-face communication Timing and Context ?Timing and context should be considered for achieving publicity in the mass media as well as for being persuasive Reinforcement ?A public relations campaign should be in sync with an audience's core value or belief system Limits of persuasion ?Lack of message penetration ?Competing or conflict messages ?Self-selection ?Self perception Chapter 8: Managing competition and conflict Overview ?A new way of thinking: conflict and competition ?the role of public relations in managing conflict it depends: factors that affect conflict management ?the conflict management life cycle ?managing the life cycle of a conflict A New Way of Thinking: Conflict and Competition ?Public relations can be defined as the strategic management of competition and conflict ?Competition ?Conflict Role of public relations in managing conflict ?Strategic conflict management ?Conflict is inherent in public relations process ?PR professionals must develop communication strategies to manage the conflict What do you think? ?What are some real world examples of conflict management? Is conflict always bad for organizations? Why or why not? It Depends: Factors that Affect Conflict Management ?Stance-drive approach in managing conflict and competition ?External and internal variables > stance > strategy The Threat Appraisal Model ?PR professionals monitor for threats, assess those threats, arrive at a desirable stance for the organization, and then begin communications efforts from that stance ?situational demands ?resources Contingency theory ?Contingency factors ?a matrix of factors drive the stance ?The contingency continuum ?The stance is dynamic; it changes as events unfold The Conflict Management Life Cycle Proactive – to prevent a conflict from arising ?environmental scanning ?issues tracking ?issues management ?crisis planning ? Strategic – emerging conflict is identified as needing action ?risk communication ?conflict positioning ?crisis management ?Reactive – must react when conflict reaches a critical level of impact ?crisis communication ?litigation pr ?conflict resolutions ?Recovery – strategies employed aftermath to bolster or repair reputation ?reputation management ?image restoration Managing the Life Cycle of a Conflict ?Four systematic processes ?Issues management A proactive approach to ?predict problems ?anticipate threats ?minimize surprises ?resolve issues ?prevent crises ?Strategic positioning and risk communication ? Strategic positioning ?communication efforts to position the organization favorably regarding competition and conflict ?Risk communication ?an attempt to communicate risks to the public that impact health, safety, and the envorinment ?Crisis management ?Smoldering crises ?a study but the institute for crisis management found that 86% of business crises were â€Å"smoldering crises. † ?How various organizations respond to crises Coombs' crisis communication strategies ?attack the accuser ?denial ?excuse ?justification ?ingratiation ?corrective action ?full apology ?Reputation management ?The three foundations of reputation ?economic performance ?social responsiveness ?the ability to deliver valuable outcomes to stakeholders ?Image restoration ?denial ?evade responsibility ?reduce offensiveness ?corrective action ?apology Deja Vu – All over again ?Conflict management is like deja vu all over again by starting once again with tasks such as environmental scanning and issues tracking Chapter 9: Ethics and the Law Overview ?What is ethics? ?Professional guidelines ?Dealing with the news media ?Public relations and the law ?Employee communications ?Copyright law ?Fair use versus infringement ?Trademark law ?Regulations by government agencies ?Liability for sponsored events ?Working with lawyers What is Ethics? ?Value system by which a person determines what is right or wrong What Do You Think? ?How can a public relations practitioner play the role of an â€Å"ethical advocate? † The Ethical Advocate ?The ethical advocate is operating within an assigned role ?Ethical decisions are made based on the public interest ?the interests of employer/client ?professional organization code of ethics ?personal values Professional Guidelines ?PRSA Code of Ethics ?Values ?Advocacy ?Serving the public interest by acting as responsible advocates for clients or employers ?Honesty ? Adhering to the highest standards of accuracy and truth in advancing the interest of clients and employers ?Expertise ?Advancing the profession through continued professional development, research, and education ?Independence ?Providing objective counsel and being accountable for individual actions ?Loyality Being faithful to clients and employers, but also honoring an obligation to serve the public interest ?Fairness ?Respecting all opinions and supporting the right of free expression ?Provisions ?Free flow of information ?Competition ?Disclosure of information ?Safeguarding confidence ?Conflicts of interest ?Enhancing the profession Codes of Conduct ?The role of professional organizations ?public relations society of america (PRSA) and international association of business communicators (IABC) ?to set the standards and ethical behavior of the public relations profession Ethics in Individual Practice Ethics in public relations begins with the individual, and is directly related to h is or her own value system as well as to the good of society Dealing With the News Media ?Trust ?Gift giving undermines the relationship between public relations professionals and the media ? Transparency Public Relations and the Law ?Defamation ?libel (printed), slander (oral) ?making a false statement about a person or organization that creates public hatred, contempt or ridicule, or inflicts injury on reputation ?Avoiding libel suites ?four requirements for filing a libel suit ?false statement ?identified or identifiable actual injury ?negligence Employee Communications ?Product publicity and advertising ?written permission required ?Employee free speech ?freedom of expression ?employees are limited in expressing opinions within the corporate environment ?privacy vs monitoring ?FOIA and government officials ?whistle-blowing Copyright Law ?Copyright is the protection of creative work from unauthorized use ?registration is not a condition of copyright protection, but it is a prerequisite to an infringement action against unauthorized use by others ? What organizational materials should be copyrighted? How can you use the copyrighted materials of others? Fair Use Versus Infringement ?Fair use allows partial use of copyrighted material with attribution ?Permission is required if used in advertisements or promotional items ?New copyright issues on the internet have been raised ?Rule of thumb: ?get permission ?give credit The Rights of Photographers and Artists ?Freelance and commercial photographers retain ownership of their work ?The rights of freelance writers ?unless a company has a specific contract with a freelance writer to produce work that will be exclusively owned by that company, the freelancer owns his or her work Trademark Law ?Trademarks are registered words, names, symbols, or devices used to identify a product ?The protection of trademarks ?always capitalized never used as nouns (Kleenex tissues, Xerox copies) ?Trademark infringement ?the downside for a corporation who trademark becomes too commonly used Misappropriation of Personality ?A form of trademark infringement ?Unauthorized use of well-known entertainers, professional athletes, and other public figures in an organization's publicity and advertising materials Regulations by Government Agencies ?The Federal Trade Commission (FTC) ?The Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) ?Other regulatory agencies ?The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) ?The Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms ?The Federal Communications Commission Liability for Sponsored Events ?Plant tours and open houses ?Considerations ?logistics ?work disruptions ?safety ?staffing Working with Lawyers ?A cooperative relationship must exist between public relations personnel and legal counsel

Tuesday, January 7, 2020

Later School Start Times Essay - 1415 Words

Later School Start Times Everyone has always hated getting up super early to go to school. As children get older they move to different schools, from elementary to middle to high school, and the start times get earlier. In elementary school it was never a problem getting up but getting older, it always got harder to get up and the days were always longer. Schools start so early in the morning that it is hard to focus and students tend to miss more of their earlier classes and attend all of their later classes. Schools everywhere should start later because it would benefit the students and teachers. All children need sleep and want sleep during the weekdays and that is very difficult. It has been noticed that older students and younger†¦show more content†¦Adolescents and adults need around 9 hours of sleep daily (De Souza 5). Since schools are starting so early, they can not get the needed sleep time, eight to nine hours. Even though teachers go to school the same time as students, consequences are worse in students and it seems to have more of a critical effect on students. No matter if it is a student or a teacher, the quality of sleep is very important for everybody. Students need a good amount of sleep to be able to focus and get through the school day. Students ability to function during school is impacted by the quantity, regularity, and quality if their sleep (Wolfson 1). The quality of sleep is not only important for the students but it is also important for the teachers. The quality of sleep affects the way students and teachers act throughout the day. Daytime sleepiness and poor sleep quality on school days in students and teachers may comprise school and work performance (De Souza 5). Since students and teachers stay up so late at night, they tend to be very tired during the day. It is important to get sleep but it is more important to get a good sleep. There is not really a point in sleeping or trying to get sleep when it is not a good sleep because no matter what students will be tired during the day. While the quality of sleep is important, so is the amount of sleep a student or teacher is getting on school nights. The amount of sleep studentsShow MoreRelatedAgainst Later Start Time For School849 Words   |  4 PagesAgainst later start time for school Many people think that schools shouldn’t start schools later. It does not help teens at all. Starting school later that means it will affect all sports. Many parent aren’t sold on later school start times for teens. Sleeping in probably sounds like a no brainer to most teenagers, but their parents aren’t so sure that it’s worth starting school later to get the extra shut-eye. If we start school later than kids will have to start school earlier andRead MoreSchools Should Have A Later Start Time1324 Words   |  6 Pagesconsiderable amount of investigating it appears as if their lack of energy could be due to sleep deprivation resulting from early school start times. When later school times have been compared to those schools that start earlier, there are significant changes in the behaviors and results that students emit in a school environment. Schools should have a later start time that is better suited to the biological needs of adolescents as a way to aid them in achieving a higher quality education. ThereRead More The Dangers of Teen Sleep Deprivation: Benefits of Adopting Later Start Times for High Schools3298 Words   |  14 Pagesas Aarthi Belani, a high school student from Minnesota, notes about the 7:20 a.m. chemistry class she took her junior year. â€Å"It was an ungodly hour to be studying chemistry,† she recalls with a shiver; â€Å"In the first period, 75 percent of the kids would have their heads down on their desk at one time or another† (Bettelheim 4). Students in high schools from Maine to California find it equally grueling to stay awake during their morning classes since more and more schools choose to open their doorsRead MoreShould School Start Times?1527 Words   |  7 PagesIt gives our brain cells time to relax and not over-work. However, some teens aren t getting the 8.5 hours of sleep they need, and believe the school is responsible for it. In most districts, schools start times around 7:00 am in some cases. Parents and students believe th at the school district should change this and make the start of the school day later, so that they can get the right amount of sleep they need to function. In the Scope article, â€Å"Should School Start Later?† by Justin O’Neill, â€Å"TeachersRead MoreShould School Day Start Later? Essay1395 Words   |  6 PagesShould School Day Start Later Even though that schools are starting too early and students aren t getting enough sleep. Schools should start later because teens can get more sleep and teens can get their work on time., That schools should start later so students can learn better. because Teens are falling asleep in class because they are getting to school early. and Schools are starting too early and should start later. Students need more sleep in the morning so that when they get to school they canRead MoreShould School Start Later? 660 Words   |  3 Pagesimperative that we don’t further weaken our school day by making school start later. This is important to take into consideration when deciding school start times, as well as many other facts. District officials nationwide have been discussing or even implementing a later start time in their schools. However, this will just cause more problems and hurt the students and everybody else concerned more than help them. Children need to learn how to manage their time and get the amount of sleep they need. WeRead MoreWhy School Should Start Later899 Words   |  4 PagesSchool Should Start Later Almost every day high school students are waking up around six o’clock in the morning to get ready for school, some even earlier than that. Nearly every morning students are waking up without adequate sleep. If sleep is one of the most essential needs of the body in order to grow and develop, shouldn’t we be more aware of how much it affects students everyday performance? The ways in which students are affected by sleep-deprivation is precisely why school needs to startRead MoreStudents Are Not Getting The Proper Sleep They Need1272 Words   |  6 Pagessleep they need. School start times around the nation begin at around eight in the morning. If students need to balance a large load of after school activities, these early start times may be difficult for some to adjust on. The patterns of teenager’s lives keep them up anyway and make them need to sleep later into the morning. Therefore, High schools need to start at least 30 minutes later in the day to help st udents, schools and society. If schools started thirty minutes later in the day, the departmentRead MoreGraduation Speech : The National Sleep Foundation1681 Words   |  7 Pagesduring the school year. A big component of sleep loss is a direct result of the early start times for high school. Between after school sports, work, and homework the average teen does not make it to bed before 11p.m. Adolescents then proceed to wake up before 6:30 a.m. to make it to school on time leaving them with an insufficient amount of sleep. Many fatigued teenagers then come to school and easily miss out on learning. School officials have presented a variety of solutions to school boards toRead MoreShould School Start Later?1128 Words   |  5 PagesShould School Start Later? For years, experts have debated when the proper start time for high schools in America should be. Most high schools start at around 8:00 A.M. and some even earlier. New findings have led many experts to believe that schools should start later than 8:00, around 9:00 to 9:30. Most students would agree and appreciate the extra sleep. Starting school later would be beneficial because teenagers need to go to bed later and get up later, less sleep for students means lower